open QITools

Collaborative tools for the conduct and teaching of clinical quality improvement

View source files at GitHub


Create your local goal, by using published benchmarks to estimate percentiles of performance

Use published benchmarks to calculate estimates of mean and standard deviation which leads to estimates of the 75th and 80th percentiles.
1. Example using rates of blood pressure control
 Lower range
(national or regional rate)
Upper range
(best reported)
BP < 140/90
Not needed65
(from HEDIS)
(from Kaiser)
2. For your topic, find:
  • Median/mean values for your clinic measure or topic using HEDIS and other sites
  • Best reported rates from PubMed. Show details of PubMed search filters
3. Enter your values (replace example values for blood pressure with yours)
Lowest rate reported
Median or mean
Highest reported rate

4. Results:
normal distribution
Longer list of estimates:
Mean: SD:
Suggested benchmarks to aim for:
25th percentile (z = -0.67):
50th percentile (from the median value you entered [z = 0]):
75th percentile (z = 0.67):
80th percentile (z = 0.84):
90th percentile (z = 1.30):
z scores obtained from and (table of values).
Details from: mean to median, confidence interval, interquartile range, and range. See downloadable spreadsheet for calculations by Wan, 2014 PMID 25524443

Determine the estimated percentile of your local performance

Determine your percentile by comparing your rate to the published published median benchmark value and the estimated standard deviation of published rates (from above)
Enter values
Your observationPopulation 50th percentilePopulation standard deviation
(from above)

Details from: stackoverflow.

Alternatively, get percentile from

Enter Z score at here (use One-sided option)